EORIran, with a record of over one century of oil production, is currently one of the major oil producing countries of the world. According to I.R .Iran oil ministry 20 years plan and overview plan, following targets must be achieved: • Capacity building for 5.7 million bbl production per day in 2015 • Increasing in natural gas production to 900 million cubic meter per day in 2015 • Supply 100 million cubic meter per day natural gas for consumption in industrial Sector . Several of the old fields have been depleted to an uneconomical level of production and 9-11% yearly reduction has reported in these fields which requires significant amount of natural gas for re-injection so that currently over 100 million cubic meters of natural gas is reinjected daily to maintain or enhance oil production to an economical level. It is estimated that in order to maintain oil production, over 200 million cubic meters of natural gas will be needed daily by 2015. Some of these oil fields have experienced an annual depletion in productivity between 9 to 11 percent which can be enhanced by secondary or tertiary recovery. Considering that most of the reservoirs are of the carbonated fractured type containing heavy crude, the selection of the optimum secondary or tertiary recovery method is of great importance. For example production rate of Aghajari oil filed decrease from 1,023,000 bbl per day in 1973 to 145000bbl per day in 2005.56 million cubic meter natural gas comes from South Pars must be injected into reservoir to raise 300000 bbl per day production. Already ,there are some main projects for secondary recovery in Iran ,include water injection in several onshore and offshore fields like Salman (Sasan) oil field ,natural gas injection in Aghajari project and gas reinjection in Amak group fields and also there are some plan for water and WAG for Resalat ,Reshadat and Dorood.
Hydrogen EnergyHydrogen is a versatile energy carrier that can be used to power nearly every end-use energy need. Hydrogen is the simplest and most common element in the universe. It is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that has the highest energy content per unit of weight of any known fuel. Hydrogen is very chemically active and rarely stands alone as an element. It usually exists in combination with other elements, such as oxygen in water, carbon in methane, and in trace elements as organic compounds. Hydrogen therefore must be broken from its bonds with other elements in order to be used as a fuel. There are numerous processes that can be used to break these bonds.
Renewable EnergyRenewable DE is clean, and provides benefits not only to the individual investor but also to society on a whole. Like DE in general it can provide significant benefits: environmental, economic, efficiency, resource conservation, reliability and security. What makes renewable DE distinct is that renewable DE technologies, as the name suggests, employ sources of energy to make electricity that can be replenished or that do not run-out over time. Sun and wind are perpetual and biomass is another word for fuel that comes from things that grow back including wood waste, agricultural residues etc. Depending on the technology, various processes are at work when renewable DE generates power. It can either be a chemical reaction, as is the case with solar, the movement of wind or water pushing a turbine or heat creating steam to move a turbine as with geothermal or biomass combustion.
New FuelsDimethyl ether (DME) is a clean energy source and as it generates no sulfur oxide or soot during combustion its environmental impact is low. Owing to its non-toxicity and easy liquefaction properties, DME is easy to handle and therefore can be used as a domestic-sector fuel (substitute for LPG), transportation fuel (diesel vehicles, fuel cell vehicles), power plant fuel (thermal plants, cogeneration plants, stationary fuel cells), and as a raw material for chemical products. The only current commercial process in use for the production of DME is via fixed bed catalytic dehydration of methanol. Because the process is relatively simple, this method is commonly used because of the low capital investment required and the availability of feedstock. However, this results in a DME cost that is by default more expensive than the price of methanol. In the direct synthesis process, DME is synthesized directly from the synthesis gas and also from CO2 hydrogenation. The greenhouse effect is a threat to the living environment of mankind. The transformation of CO2 into useful chemicals, e.g. DME, is an attractive way to protect the global environment since CO2 is an important greenhouse gas and DME itself is a useful raw chemical that can be used as a substitute for LPG and diesel. Research and development on technologies capable of mass-producing DME at low cost are being carried out by many companies.
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CCS would most likely reduce emissions from large stationary sources of CO2 significantly(such as fossil-fuel power plants or large industrial processes which account for more than 65% of the world CO2 emissions). Considering the lower estimate of global storage capacity(around 700 Gt CO2 for oil, gas and coal reservoirs and 1000Gt CO2 for deep saline formation), CCS would thus allow fossil fuels to be used in existing plants as well as plants that will be built around the world in the coming years with low emission of greenhouse gas.